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Development prospect and quality control of cotton picking cotton

Xinjiang is the production conditions in China the most superior, the greatest potential for high-quality cotton production base production, cotton planting area has reached 120 million Hm2 (1 800 acres), the annual total output of cotton is more than 200 million tons, which accounts for nearly 1 / 3 of the country's total output of cotton. In recent years, with the cotton planting area has expanded each year, per unit area yield is also rising, and Huagong pick up serious shortage of normal cotton boll opening can not be timely picking, in autumn in a changing climate under the influence of cotton yield and grade have decreased in varying degrees. How to solve the flower picking up, improve flower picking up efficiency and pick up flower quality is currently facing an important problem, promotion of large machine pick up cotton to replace hand picked cotton planting mode, will be an important measure to Xinjiang to solve the problem. The promotion of cotton production technology, the improvement of planting varieties, the improvement and improvement of planting technology, the improvement of pest control technology will be an important factor to ensure the quality of cotton production.

One, promote large area machine cotton to plant already was the big trend of our country cotton industry

1 mechanical cotton picking speed is fast, the cost is relatively low. From in recent years, the Xinjiang trial machine of promotion of mining cotton area of data display, at its peak, a cotton picker, harvested cotton more than 40 000 kg, quite in 1 000 collecting gardener labor. Xinjiang Academy of agricultural machinery of the experts pointed out that under normal circumstances, a cotton picker is equivalent to 600 collecting gardener amount of labor. Nearly a few years in Xinjiang production and Construction Corps were manually picked cotton at the lowest cost of about 0.6 yuan / kg and machine pick up cotton actual harvest cost at around 0.4 yuan / kg. Taking into account the mining machine after blowing factory need to increase energy consumption and labor costs, 0.06 yuan per kilogram of seed sharing, total seed cotton production cost to 0.46 yuan / kg, mechanical harvesting than hand harvesting per kilogram of seed cotton can reduce the cost of 0.14 yuan. With the continuous expansion of the size of the cotton picking machine and the improvement of management level, the cost of mechanical cotton picking can also be reduced.

2. According to the relevant statistics, in 2010, Xinjiang machine picked cotton planting area will account for more than 50% of the total cotton area, the Corps will have more than 80% of the cotton field implementation of mechanical harvesting.

3 it is necessary to popularize mechanical cotton picking technology in large area in Xinjiang. With the transfer of the strategy of national cotton, Xinjiang's cotton industry will have a considerable development, then depending on the "human sea tactics," picking is clearly not feasible. From the current situation of Xinjiang production and Construction Corps, about 90% of the cotton or by migrant workers by hand picking, with cotton acreage increased year by year, the rapid growth of cotton production, local pick up flowers serious labor shortage, a considerable part of the cotton needs foreign workers to help picking, then if in mechanized cotton instead of manual pick up cotton is the most effective solution to this problem.

Two. Quality control of cotton picking

1. Breeding pest resistance, lodging resistance, central cotton bolls, boll opening and boll shell cracking, on removal of leaf agent more sensitive in long staple variety, can effectively improve the mechanical picking cotton efficiency and picking quality.

2. Mechanical picking cotton must be in accordance with high density and high yield planting mode, through the early sowing in good time, timely topping, the reasonable control of water and fertilizer, planting spacing, the cotton plant height, boll setting, uniform ripening, boll opening, so as to improve the machine pick up cotton mining net rate; also must be to regulate the use of defoliants, machine picked cotton leaves the better off, apheresis cotton impurity content less, not only the appearance quality of cotton is relatively good, internal consistency of quality is also good.

3. Machine pick up cotton in the growth and development period to conscientiously do a good job plant diseases and insect pests prevention and cure, of cotton in different growth period had been subjected to pest damage invasion of early comprehensive prevention and treatment and prevention of plant diseases and insect pests invasion of cotton boll and boll, ensure the machine picked cotton yield and quality is not affected, improve cotton grade.

4 mechanical cotton picking is one of the important factors that affect the quality of cotton picking cotton. Master the use of technology of cotton picker, standardized operation points, according to the requirements of normal cotton boll opening after timely picking machine. Xinjiang Climate due to the large temperature difference between day and night, morning and evening dew and frost, and more water, natural moisture in cotton leaves, mechanical cotton picking water spray should not be too much or according to the actual situation of no water; middle period of high temperature and cotton leaves easily broken, then the mechanical cotton picker to timely spraying, can avoid the boll in cotton leaves and broken, easy machining process of impurity cleaning, make cotton impurity reduction, ensure the machining quality of cotton.

Xinjiang cotton planting patterns are basically the use of plastic mulch and drip irrigation technology, so in addition to mechanical cotton picking time control, picking conditions, the environment must be flexible to local conditions. On the level of inconsistency, cotton boll opening appropriate to reduce the speed picking, to slow recovery, fine production, avoid too many impurities (Boll and boll), hazard debris (plastic film, drip irrigation belt), adopted in cotton, so that both can ensure cotton picking quality, can be provided and the cotton is high grade.

5. With the promotion of machine pick up cotton, cotton processing equipment and processes to according to the machine pick up cotton quality requirements for further improvement and perfection, cotton processing technology level to get more comprehensive improvement, in order to ensure the overall quality of the cotton picker.

1. Due to the big difference is machine pick up cotton picking and processing method with traditional hand picked cotton, mechanical cotton picker to timely water and moisture content of seed, containing impurities are higher, the process must be equipped to deal with the amount of energy to meet the production requirements of cotton

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